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Disease prevention and cure 

Intramuscular injection of water turtles treatment of respiratory tract infections

 07/06/2010  Renzhe

Editor's Note: Turtle stress response, causing flu occur. This disease is still difficult and complicated diseases are generally ferocious, processing is not timely, not in place, diagnostic errors, medication improperly can cause mortality. Ninja on the money turtle breeding occurred in such a situation, the causes of changing the water use of cold water to make money turtle produce stress. Start ninja that is gastroenteritis, was found to condition the direction towards deterioration in serious condition, after the exchange with their peers identified as the stress caused by cold, and gradually turned into pneumonia. After soaking, bait and injection and other methods of treatment, and eventually to the main injection of effective drugs, and make careful observations, timely adjustment of treatment, cold money turtle finally be cured. To this end, ninja wrote the treatment process and personal experience.

Online on the turtle respiratory infections and pneumonia post a lot of help. Some turtles are lucky, intend to feed Lord to heal, but more because of disease progression or died turtle lost. Also some turtles, recurrence after cure, eventually died. A pity. Recently, I have a sudden onset of a turtle, under the helpless turtle on the treatment of respiratory tract infections were practical operation, fortunately found that the more timely treatment are quite active, although the treatment has also taken a detour, but fortunately the ultimate success or tortoise finally healed. In the meantime, Zhang Jian teachers were important guiding me, and I see a lot of Kiyu treatment experience, including some bearing lotus and other Kiyu treatment experience. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude. Treatment of pneumonia for most Kiyu is more difficult, and I like the whole process very complicated. Rapid disease onset, oncoming force raging, untreated deterioration is also faster, in addition to some of the early disease can be medicated bath turtle or instillation therapy, spiritual development is not necessarily a serious point. Actually, the most effective and fastest treatment efficacy, or injection. Here introduces the process of my treatment of turtles, and intramuscular injection of some experience, for friends as a reference. What is wrong if there is content, but also enthusiastic that please.

First, the whole process of treatment

May 10 at feed turtles, found the turtle in the land, put the shrimp on the only news, not eating, abnormal behavior. Pick up the turtles nostril patency was observed, but the mouth some mucus. Through consultation, that turtle is cold (respiratory infection). Observed again at night, turtles are occasionally found in the phenomenon of mouth breathing, but it does not rise, then determine the turtle is suffering from a respiratory tract infection. Gradually started to take a conservative heat isolation medicated bath treatment with cephradine capsules, each of the water against a Jin. Two days later, the tortoise was found not only not improved, but disease development, the long stretch limbs intact, occasionally crawling in the bottom, the shell and the front of the bump at the bottom with the crawling, obviously limp. And mouth and water have significantly shaped white phlegm mucus. Not again and again, in the chapter the teacher's suggestion, the heartless began to take injections. Start using cefoperazone 纳舒巴坦纳, each 0.5 gram. Sick turtle weighing nearly 500 grams, this should be injected with 0.25 grams, but worry that the first injection of 0.125 g needle. Mouth mucus seems to have reduced the next day, next day played a total of 0.25 grams, but in two injections, once every 12 hours. On the third day, significant reduction in mucus, most of the time not see, but the water they gradually or appear white matter. Revive the spirit of a lot of turtles that can catch your fingers in water and swim faster. This time the first error committed, on-line with that symptom, the turtle will recover faster after eating, to believe that the resistance of the tortoise itself. So stop the drug. But the day is over, the turtles mouth mucus again, the spirit of the doldrums soon, and have begun floating, but does not tilt. Sleep over, drooping limbs weakness, when awake, the eyes are half shut afterwards, by observation of the tongue turtle relatively pale color, and obviously not the same as normal. In desperation, had to re-injection, this is the time 0.25 grams, enough time to play, once a day. After playing two days, more sleepiness after each injection turtles, but turtles have markedly improved after a few hours, a significant reduction of mucus, and mucus in color from white, become transparent, the best time to see the almost spiritual appetite has markedly improved. Original drugs are effective and adhere to it will be cured, but unfortunately it is not enough injection of experience, the third day of the second injection of committing a serious error. Improper injection site, resulting in almost one day of drug simmering, not how spread, on the fourth day, increased mucus, the color back to white, tortoise spirit of the doldrums, floating clear, breathing great range of motion stretching limbs, seem effortless, the condition re- repeatedly. At this time taking into account the risk of medication led to the beginning dose of fear is not enough, improper operation of drug absorption, turtles and more bad situation, worried that generated resistance, choose dressing. The dressing chosen Cefminox sodium. At this point the situation is the day of not working to not only the Xinyi Heng, go to injection. Combination of a few days ago the situation, draw three experiences: First, to correct dose, and second, symptoms medication must continue to consolidate after the third, injection method must be correct, so that the smooth absorption of drugs faster. Cefminox sodium injection, a dosage of 0.25 g, once a day. As the cross of the heart, the first direct injection for seven days. Fortunately, the seven days, from the fourth day, the turtle situation to improve. First of all, after the drug injection, no obvious lethargy turtle case, Furthermore each additional day after injection, turtle situation better. Turtle in the water after the injection, although still relatively floating, but activity increased significantly, respiratory rate when stretching limbs gradually become smaller, not only more active pursuit of food, or even bite of food in the water rise above it, and can be seen at this time to the turtle's tongue obviously change the color pink. After seven days, the symptoms disappeared, then withdrawal observation. Day after withdrawal, the tortoise has a small mouth appear transparent mucus, respiratory occasional whistle, then a continuous injection of four days and then stopped after continuous observation, 72 hours after drug withdrawal symptoms repeated to determine the basic recovery. With particular reference to the injection process, I have a drug dexamethasone and cephalosporins together injection dose of 0.25 mg, mainly played the role of anti-allergic, and later re-established gradually improved turtle, I gradually reduced to dose of dexamethasone (steroids can not pause and to gradually reduce until the disabled), the final consolidation of four needle that had been injected with only a single spore Minona. Turtle mouth mucus changes during treatment are as follows: 1, into a group of white mucus in the mouth with just a white translucent appearance of floc, the water mouth hanging for a long time, or falling into the water, will become full white, mostly floating on the water surface. 2, mucus less transparent but with some white spots inside and started floating, one night after a considerable part of the submerged. 3, mucin significantly reduced, the basic into full transparency, shed, was translucent, as a transparent excuse to not look carefully to be seen. Sometimes, especially small and almost can not tell, but in fact there are still very small. 4, mucus disappear. This is a symptom, the basic rehabilitation of an important sign. Mucus can only show two possibilities: disease not good, improper treatment or environmental trigger repeatedly. In the full withdrawal (injection), the water spread oxytetracycline to consolidate prevention of recurrence. Because turtles although asymptomatic, have restored the spirit of a good appetite, but also slightly but only one nostril blocked a small circle. I consider the nose and respiratory tract infections are likely to plug this thing, since the time absolutely nothing, then it may be re-inward development, and even appeared mucus and relapse, so this thing must be thoroughly removed. Oxytetracycline tablets, each tablet 200,000 units, water is about 10 kg more, and threw five, a total of 100 million units, three days after dipping, with a digital camera macro shooting turtles nose, enlarged observation, observation of the result is not found ideal, nothing appears to the naked eye, and then double-check 10 times a magnifying glass to light the inside of the nose turtles, have been found to not clog up completely, but the skin inside the nose, had turned from white into some gray area (inside the nose there should be some of the normal color), and the right nostril is similar to only one hundred percent sure at this time the tortoise has been fully recovered. Select oxytetracycline reason is because of the drug on the turtle book introduces significant effect of respiratory tract infection, there is the feeling of turtles at this time only the nose this lesion, and medicated bath should be effective. Bubble for three days, really obvious effect. 5.10 found from the condition at this time has passed more than 20 days, the pain is really bitterly painful course of treatment, severely catching a turtle disease treatment drugs and knowledge. Get some experience is valuable, is also a profound lesson, let me stress to the turtle with understanding of the nature of cold. Health turtles live intranasal be a variety of bacteria, their mutual constraints, together with the tortoise's own immune system, attack disease under normal circumstances is not easy. However, mutation of the ambient temperature, the turtle's immune system suddenly drop, nasal mucosa is stimulated, may produce mucus, together give bacteria to flourish and create the environment, not to discover treatment, bacteria will be step by step in depth, turtles from the respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or even die until into. It seems to be doubled after carefully to avoid recurrence of such a thing. The treatment environment: the tortoise is raised in a blue single turnover box, water heated to 29 degrees. Water level over the end of Turtle 1-2 cm. Water changed every day, open air solar heating lamp. One-third of the water tank used a fish book cover to create a darker environment. Most turtles will go to sleep under the shadow of that little bit. Course of treatment, the water has been spilled vitamin C and vitamin B. When there is a turtle in the treatment of appetite, withdrawal symptoms occur after the loss of appetite or even stop. Tortoise feeding time, mainly fish and shrimp feed, and later, after symptoms begin to accept some vegetarian food, especially after stopping feeding also added BAC. In fact, playing for seven days Cefminox sodium symptoms disappeared after the mucus appeared twice again. Because all the time because of changing the water caused a slightly longer time to dry up (even in the sun lamp, turtle heat away body moisture evaporation, can also cause disease turtle does not), one level lower, exposing a small part of the back caused. Therefore, heating the water must be totally submerged carapace, the air should be heated. Change the water temperature must be to eliminate any. Then I use another small box, change the water when heated to the same on both sides of the same time the temperature was only then that turtles moved, the water came alive again in return for good. To fully recover, there have been no because the temperature of the mucus. After symptoms disappear, there is difference in temperature caused by mouth with a transparent mucus, and clear the nose of the truth about abortion, but more likely to lead to relapse, because the internal environment suitable for bacteria multiply and gradually form again, it is necessary to eliminate any temperature. This is the turtle back to health the most important prerequisite.
Second, treatment and experience-point

1, symptoms of disease turtle. Turtle mouth breathing, and sometimes rise mouth breathing, gone are unable to head on the ground. Nostrils breathing whistle or other sound (normal not have any sound), there are foam or thick mucus mouth, sometimes with white sputum surface shaped by a sudden fierce sometimes turtle's head, these are respiratory infections symptoms. Note that these are not signs, are there one or two of these turtles will have got sick, at least no longer normal. Serious, the turtles will be weaker because of the floating body, floating or tilting. Sometimes, the owner is not diligent observation, it is not easy to find problems in the turtle. Because of some little turtle began to mouth the bubble, but also into the water, what water to clean mouth, but also more active feeding, appearances will make people to the effect, resulting in environmental improvement and timely treatment is not timely, the further condition development of deterioration, and by then, of course, will certainly find problems, because symptoms, and how turtles do not eat, and to this time, treatment would up more difficult. So carefully is extremely important. To know that even if the early treatment of respiratory tract infection is more problematic. Late, let alone, mortality rates. Has become a big leaf late pneumonia gangrenous pneumonia or pneumonia, the main body began to break, do not serve the purpose of the injection. Must be diligent examination, early detection and early treatment can cure are nasal and respiratory problems, and this is the so-called early and mid-term, to nothing so that the lung. Should be out some time each day to observe the behavior of the tortoise and the state, from the turtle's mental state, physical activity, eating performance to defecation should pay attention, this regardless of their view for Yang Gui or disease prevention and found that all It is very necessary.

2, drug choice. Turtle respiratory infections and pneumonia, is a very serious matter, in addition to the disease will die, this should be a second type of trouble. Black turtle bean curd sheet are not afraid of a faulty outside, afraid of problems inside the body. Online examples are usually cured, effective drug is mainly these types: anti-Gram-positive bacteria roxithromycin, penicillin, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, etc. generations. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to gentamicin, amikacin sulfate (amikacin), or broad-spectrum antibiotic, but the main effect of the strong negative bacteria, third generation cephalosporin drugs. Cephalosporin first and second generation of drugs, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, the second generation of drug resistance is also part of some negative bacteria. Penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics such as drugs, anti-bacterial effect is to kill nature. Some of the bacteria on the work, some work in the stationary phase. According to medicinal properties, can be used in conjunction with, play better results. (But to ban the drug combination incompatibility, at least stagger the time), roxithromycin, spiramycin, etc. Anti-positive bacteria mainly, but also anti-mycoplasma, antibacterial activity is available antibacterial, but also long-lasting inhibition of. This inhibition is reversible. Azithromycin is also a similar case, but may antimicrobial spectrum is broader. Cephalosporin antibiotics such as strong antibacterial effect, but it can also kill the probiotic intestinal turtle mortality, erythromycin macrolide class of antibiotics can be inhibitory, with the tortoise beat the immunity of bacteria, intestinal bacteria will not play a serious role in killing. No matter what kind of drug, symptomatic should we do so, according to the severity turtle choose. Azithromycin half-life in plasma speed particularly long, so I think this drug is appropriate to the case of other drugs useless to try, or else, with no effect of this drug, then metabolic long hours, would adversely affect the timely dressing delay condition. These drugs also can not afford to have any effect on the virus. Why is the test, because almost all of the Kiyu, is equipped to go to the turtle for bacterial detection and drug susceptibility. Here's the rub: pathogens, positive and negative, are aerobic, anaerobic, as well as chlamydia and mycoplasma virus. Each category has many varieties of bacteria, most of these types of bacteria that can cause some varieties of respiratory tract infection and pneumonia. Impossible for any one kind of drug resistant virus, all of the bacteria and fungi. This is a very difficult people, especially with a broad antimicrobial spectrum of drugs in particular, after, or invalid, then people are likely to head Mongolia: no anti-bacterial effect of such a broad, too difficult, loss, or even give up. Also in some cases, some turtles pneumonia with positive anti-roxithromycin, amoxicillin perfusion, or eat bait enough. Some turtles, but negative with anti-A Kami star cured. Some turtles, with roxithromycin, or even 20 days injection of penicillin, no effect, eventually living on gentamicin cured. Yes, with A Kami Star ineffective, injection of penicillin cured the last change, these are. Still, the direct use of azithromycin in the treatment better. To be honest, most of the time the election is like medicine, in addition to some experience, and how many there are points on the factors and Mongolia. How to pick the medicine? I offer suggestions, and Mongolia also pay attention to the principle point. Are not necessarily right, but should be a direction. Turtle in the early stage, the mouth a little bubble, or Meng her head when this time may be mentioned the so-called warm medicated bath perfusion may help it. But once the turtles mouth with foam, and it is best to direct injection, do not consider the other. Quick recovery, compared with the long delay in treatment is much easier. First of all, water turtle is usually negative pathogenic bacteria, and are mostly aerobic. Intestinal anaerobic bacteria normally live in places such as bacteria. Generally unlikely to result in the development of respiratory tract infection. Most books about turtles treatment of respiratory infections and pneumonia introduced both mentioned the injection of gentamicin. Broad-spectrum antibiotic gentamicin, mainly for negative bacteria is better for positive staphylococci are also effective. I checked some information on treatment of pneumonia turtle, compared with gentamicin cured or predominantly. Of course there are with other drugs, for the use of cured. The anti-negative bacteria, drug choice: gentamicin sulfate A Kami Star, ceftriaxone sodium (and calcium can not be combined with the effect of calcium combined with several cases of infant mortality), cefoperazone sodium Shubatanna (as cephalosporin cefoperazone Three drugs, but simply need to freeze dry preservation of cefoperazone. sulbactam with antibacterial activity that was, and cefoperazone combined, drugs do not need to cryopreservation, and it increased significantly synergistic antibacterial, antimicrobial power probably increased by four times ), cephalosporins Minona so. Gentamicin and A Kami Star is mainly anti-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and staphylococcus. But these drugs ototoxicity and renal toxicity greater number of Kiyu worry not use. Fact, the average dose of mastering is that the problem insignificant. Also belonging to third generation cephalosporin in cefoperazone, Cefminox sodium, for the broad-spectrum antibiotics, on the common effect of both positive and negative bacteria, and mainly on the role of a strong negative bacteria. Especially Cefminox sodium (fungal elements belonging to the first drug efficacy equivalent to third generation cephalosporin, so generally classified as one) broad-spectrum antimicrobial, bacteria breeding and resting on a double kill, especially negative bacteria, particularly the role of significant, relevant information on: The product is still on the bacterial wall peptidoglycan lipoprotein generated from hindering role. Lipoprotein structure unique to Gram-negative bacteria, therefore, the goods on the role of gram-negative bacteria was stronger than other similar drugs. This medicine is a good choice. There is a principle of medicine is called: "bang principle", in respect of the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs against bacteria play a wide role. Determine the types of bacteria, then the response to targeted treatment. Cephalosporin cefoperazone 纳舒巴坦纳 Minona and are suitable for the "bang principle" of drugs. Medical literature have introduced hundreds of uses in cefminox sodium treatment of community acquired pneumonia, the cure rate is high, five no cure, and are infected with Klebsiella. May be resistant. So celebrate Japan A Kami Star is a good effect on this bacteria. If properly injected 34 days Cefminox sodium, has no apparent effect, then we must consider the big celebration for the class to try. Not effective, you have to do is to consider use statistics penicillin, cephalosporin generation, or oxytetracycline (long-acting broad-spectrum antimicrobial), or azithromycin had. Mention Cefminox sodium and vitamin B6 should not share because they proposition would reduce the effects of the medicine. There is also information that was once used Cephradine (cephalosporin generation of anti-positive bacteria) and E Kami stars (anti-negative bacteria) combination, cured the sick cold water stress the yellow-margined box turtle, but I experiment a little, straight Star with the A Kami cephradine solution is not enough, there will be a lot of suspended solids can not be dissolved. I would like to stagger the time of separation should be injected, and then either injecting a staggered time and feed the other drug. This combination should be good, the main positive and Gram negative bacteria have a role in antimicrobial wide coverage. Do not be afraid injection, to positive treatment success is the accumulation of experience. Benefit of the future. There is also a drug to be mentioned is that glucocorticoids dexamethasone. The drug is also dealing with serious illness turtle farmers commonly used drugs. The drug, combined with antibiotics, can be anti-allergy, may also improve a little turtle immunity. But note that this drug can not be long-term use, probably because of over-reliance on the contrary, lead to decreased immunity turtles, causing secondary infection. Of course, the general 35 days, 1-2 weeks of normal use of injection therapy, is less of a problem. But when the turtle's symptoms were gone, the state has improved, this is a hormonal drug, and to slowly close look at needle is used to reduce a little amount each time until the cessation of use. When the turtles are recovered, only to consolidate the time, dexamethasone should be basically to stop the use of needles. Looks like a bit chaotic, the general meaning is: drugs are mentioned on the turtles proved effective respiratory infections and pneumonia, they did not see you picked. Chosen the wrong, invalid, then a few days later, only dressing. The general idea is to start from the negative-positive bacteria. Select broad-spectrum antibiotics is usually effective, such as third generation cephalosporin drug. Invalid, then start from the type of antimicrobial spectrum, for different drug resistance spectrum. If a treatment effect not significant, that turtle's body Kangde Zhu's words, had to change anti-positive-oriented, or select azithromycin. Of course, some might say, you said ass is it? In exchange for going, not cure disease, turtle was first drug died. Of course, it is the best one picked. However, the problem Who can guarantee that? If found early, the dose is no problem, turtles generally Kang Dezhu, even froth at the mouth limb weakness, but also Kang Dezhu, because turtles have symptoms of disease, not strength is normal, does not mean his physique had fully collapsed. If the turtle severe allergies, it can only be considered bad luck. Who told we can not do what bacteria tests. In general, that these drugs are effective, to see how to choose. Select third generation cephalosporin think the medicine is better. Also, if a course of treatment with, or even two courses, with effect, but that is not to root, no significant improvement of the drug has little effect, but also difficult to treat, cure, it was dressing, for the same drug, antimicrobial spectrum similar , and avoid bacterial resistance. Turtle case, and can be empty one day and back to allow turtles have to adjust. Turtle serious, even the air is another empty, the next day the problem is not directly for a large (almost the same antibacterial spectrum of drugs is the case, do not know too much difference). Another more important point is that injecting drugs can also be injected with some vitamin C, can be injection, but the best of the original powder. Vitamin C in enhancing immune disease turtles helpful, vitamin B is. The water can spill. Can also add a feed, short, sick turtles to more use of vitamin C. Can also be water soluble vitamin tablets.

3 doses. To a Jin (500 grams) of turtle as an example: each day, 40,000 international units of gentamicin sulfate per day 100 000 A Kami star international units. Penicillin, 50,000 IU per day. Can be a fight, do not worry you can play half or twice, or twelve hours time. But generally once a day is no problem). Cefoperazone Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium, Cefminox sodium are 0.25 grams (for medicine, when directly buying 0.5 grams per bottle, so that needs extraction was complete, leaving less lost, less waste). Toubaopaitong sulbactam, the ratio of two drugs is one to one. Some people may think that if 0.25 grams of drug injection, then the dose of cefoperazone only 0.125 grams, and will not work, I feel that I can not think so, after all, is a combination of two drugs are synergistic, antibacterial strength is significantly enhanced of. Dexamethasone, 0.25 mg per day (needles can be reduced by half, gradually decreased until discontinuation). As for penicillin, and azithromycin, I did not use, dosage unclear, but there are 0.25 grams of azithromycin installed, I would like to use half should be feasible. Also, please know that the best friends to add this content. On dilution: gentamicin, A Kami star, are direct liquid injection, dose of clear, easy to grasp the dose, not to say. Cefoperazone sodium sodium comfortable, and Cefminox sodium, dry powder injections, use sterile water for injection to dilute. Risperidone can use a 2 ml of water, well diluted. 0.5 g packs, 2 ml diluted extract 1 ml can be injected. Do not pour powder diluted to other containers, water for injection should be injected with a syringe into the powder bottle, the aseptic operation is very important. To be more rocking for a while. Then standing, to be no small air bubbles inside and suspended solids before use. Mino at least two 2 mg sodium injection water can be completely diluted. If a turtle beat a pound of sodium cefminox, it requires taking 2 ml of the diluted liquid, the amount seems a bit much, but there is no problem, or the diluted dose fixed, and more are sterile water, equal to rehydration, and slowly pushed enough. These drugs can be further diluted and mixed directly into a fight with dexamethasone. Such as sodium Schuba he Toubaopaitong sodium, 1 is 0.5 grams, need to play half of the 0.25 g turtle, into a 2 ml sterile water, diluted, and then 0.5 mg of dexamethasone a need to turtle injection 0.125 mg then taking half of the 0.25-mg dexamethasone, and diluted into 2 ml cefoperazone good solution, taking the amount of general medicine can be mixed. Both (cefoperazone and Cefminox sodium) is used to infusion and intravenous injection of. A turtle can not intravenous injection, so playing time must be slow, must be slow. Information such as a skin test of cefoperazone had no problems occurred, the patients transferred faster infusion rate led to allergic shock. So slowly, just in case. Pushed 12 mm, stop for two seconds (If there is little drum, the more pay attention to this), again and again. Completed until the injection. The whole process, keeping in about two minutes on it. Incidentally, Toubaopaitong sodium sodium Schuba him to complete the tortoise after injection, the tortoise would be more sleepy, if effective, had not slept a few turtle childhood, mental state would be much better, but symptoms can also see ease. Exclusion of many heart injection, that is the third drug drug injection risk. There may be some truth. But in fact things are advantages and disadvantages, and like I see in an information, oral and injectable oxytetracycline to the fish, compared two ways of drug metabolism in the fish case, the results show that injection of blood than the oral drug was significantly higher, than oral vaccination metabolism was much slower, which may also have reference to the turtle. High blood concentration of the drug availability is good, better, faster metabolism of, if the turtle is so, then is not a bad thing. The key is to grasp the injection dose. Several doses described above, I also collected data from the literature, I think that as long as the dose calculated in accordance with the description down to use is no problem, all the successful experience of others.

4, methods of operation. Injection must turtle fixed, preferably with two operations, one firmly fixed to the tortoise, one tortoise legs and injection. One operation, if the turtle is about a Jin, a turtle left hind leg injections, a small stool to sit or squat, overturned turtle belly side in the left thigh, palm and wrist with a junction close to turtle Hold down, index finger and thumb pulled foot tortoise, turtle's head to the left and rear DESHIL, so struggling with limbs and head turtle is not easy to have the focus. Both the left leg fixed turtle and a tortoise, while the right hand injections. To the turtle right hind leg injection, one fixed more difficult, need to squat down with his left foot slam the turtle abdomen, left hand pulling legs, right hand injection. Fixed the turtle is very important, fixed later, can be a little bit longer, to complete inability to struggling turtle, or calm down a bit after the course. Injection site in the turtle hindlimb thigh. Where the meat is relatively more easy to operate. Before injection, use your fingers touch the, identify the proper position (that is, obviously sensual, feel good parts) to give the injection site disinfection and syringes, should last for a change. After injection, press and hold the pinhole to use a cotton swab, to prevent leakage of drug. Then have to disinfect the area again. Sterilization can be sterilized medical alcohol, or iodine, personally think that the latter is better. Injection point of view, there are about 20 degrees is appropriate. Angle is too small, will dive to the skin and meat, the injection will summon one, not only easy to leaking drug, can not well absorbed. Point of view too, will be easy beating, should absolutely avoid. Acupuncture treatment, the needles went in, to be neither fast nor slow, slow a bit deeper into needle and pricked the needle push inwards on the location is very easy, not hindered. General pound turtle bar a 45 mm can be big points to bar 78 mm is no problem. The feel and speed of injection, the first injection, the speed to slow, too fast, may cause muscle damage, or drug by keeping the injection site, swelling can not be cut day, the consequences of such drug is cut off day. Injection of touch, if you feel use a little force, or hard to push, we should pull the needle out a little bit, or a deep look inside the bar a little bit of adjustment to the syringe can easily push the point, readjust after the injection is easy effortlessly, and, not easy to pin mouth bleeding, drug penetration is not easy. Injection completed, hold down the back to prevent infiltration and bleeding, disinfect, slightly into the water after drying, into the box, and so on. Worried about temperature, then I smear a needle directly to the adhesive antibiotic ointment, can be directly into the water.

5, more after-care. The so-called nursed back to health, is treated in isolation from the onset to the basic recovery, the Qinhuan water (at least for a day), clean water, add some water, vitamin C, vitamin B, help to enhance immunity, and the feed is easily digestible, nutrient abundant fine food, at the same time add some probiotics to respond to antibiotics of intestinal bacteria after the turtle imbalance problem. One or two courses on the cure of the turtle, in fact bacterial imbalance is not thought that serious. Appropriate to add like. Do not feed too much, you can eat five or six minutes. Mainly these. Treatment period and nursed back to health on the water with glucose, plus traditional Chinese medicine that I personally think that not much need. Physical bad turtle, pouring point glucose. If the water release would be beneficial bacteria, best not to put, to put Qinhuan have to change the water. If Chinese medicine, Houttuynia, Bupleurum, Radix such injection can be put. But I think the injection treatment are typed up, add these to the accelerated recovery is not necessarily much help, as long as no symptoms, and completely clean water can be. Turtle slow metabolism, so long as the symptoms disappeared gradually nursed back to health to restore it wants. Heat treatment, water temperature 28 or 30 degrees, treatment, and aftercare period, to minimize the great attention to water temperature and air temperature. Can use ceramic heaters, solar lights to heat the air. Otherwise, sometimes medication for a better one will be another mouth mucus and more likely because of some difference in temperature caused repeated. Nursed back to health it is best to add to the climate temperature and the temperature of your line, linking the future, then removing heat, so the tortoise to adapt. Another turtle nursed back to health the summer feeding time may take up to a month or two for so long, be patient (physical good recovery faster).

6, stress prevention. Now finally understand why most fans special attention to landscaping, as lovers Yang Gui's main purpose is to enjoy as pets. The farmers, but almost exclusively focus on feed, water quality and temperature. The former is played, the number of small, good management. The latter is a living, the number of large, heavy workload. Farmers value the most important thing of course is only three. Farmers in the past I was a little dismissive: it is also called Yang Gui? Environmental ugly mortality, and pointless. Now know, to feed, keep a good number of turtles so much, there is real skill. To turtle health, really is nothing more than water, feed, and the core temperature of the three. If you do, the tortoise can live longer, otherwise, in fact, turtles are very vulnerable to die very easily. In addition, as farmers do on a regular basis to spill any lime turtle pond, or what medicine bath, to prevent the disease - fans may think that medicine is bad on the turtle, generally reluctant to engage in as. On the lovers, water generally do not have a big problem. Feed must be fresh, this is also no problem. Turtle meat is not pure said. If the turtle is omnivorous, vegetarian food often provides some (but not all elements), the feeding of meat than just the resistance strong, not easy to get sick. Multi-vitamin intake, resistance to disease is relatively better. Therefore, the recipes should be rich with be reasonable. Vegetarian would have to provide a certain proportion of vegetarian (meat and vegetarian dishes seven to three, six to four, is probably the case), not to get lazy long-term feeding of meat, so you will have trouble in the. Especially in the spring, after hibernation body weakened, that is up high protein, high vitamin time. Do not turtle strong and effect. Special mention should focus on the coordination environment. Environment of lack of coordination, it is easy to cause stress. What is the environment, an analogy, in the season of large temperature difference may be limited for some reason, early sun exposure to the land, turtles will go to drying, temperature rising, the sun a few hours during this time can not shine a good water, water or cool, and then turtle accidentally into the water, do not need a few, may be a few degrees of temperature stress led to a cold, that is, respiratory tract infection. Further development, that is, bronchitis, pneumonia, severity of the treatment difficult.

Treatment of one case of Common green turtles stress disorder

Treatment of one case of Common green turtles stress disorder


 2010-6-14 Zhang Jian

Guangdong Yangjiang from the "Turtle diagrams and examples of efficient breeding technology," Lai readers, because of self-support of the turtles sick starvation, send text messages to consult on 2010.6.4. 1 week ago, he spent several thousand from Zhanjiang, two Common green turtles, an average of 1,500 grams specifications, back when their configuration seawater aquaculture, salinity control sample by mouth, is clearly not enough science, followed by a more scientific is to use tap water configuration directly after use as artificial seawater, due to large temperature difference between water and room temperature, stress reaction, two turtles starvation. And bought back to the normal feeding time. Lai linked to the author after the request for help, I immediately QQ guide treatment, results in the 2010.6.14 Lai send text messages to tell the author that turtles had resumed feeding. Specific process is:
2010-5-28, bought two turtles from Zhanjiang, and bring back some of the natural sea water;
2010-6-2, changing the water, the use of artificial sea water allocation, salinity mouth taste, unscientific, and generate greater stress due to temperature, day of starvation;
2010-6-4, calls for technical support, I use QQ to guide him to help;
2010-6-5, changing the water, 22 ‰ artificial seawater according to the concentration of scientific configuration;
2010-6-7 ~ 2010-6-11, injection drug use, 1 per day, continuous infusion of 5 days;
2010-6-12 antibiotics + medicine preparation 2 ml per day, 1 and since then have been injected 6 days;
2010-6-13, green sea turtle recovery feeding.
2010-6-14, continue to observe the performance of normal, basic recovery.

" the turtle ill expert of prevention and cure talk "( chapter sword write ). The document press publication of science and technology. Content brief introduction This book raise turtle cooperation net expert chapter sword engineer from nation-wide health to write, exposition our country raises the problem that turtle trade has , especially aims at factory to melt , gather contract to melt raise turtle " 3 is in height of "( high temperature , the degree of high density , pollute high) cause turtle disease to grow, the condition that difficult miscellaneous disease arises continuously, seminar turtle ill research and the present situation of prevention and cure are centralized , introduce the new accomplishment of turtle ill research field, include: Guard against that disease is raised , turtle and infectious turtle are ill , attack sexual turtle disease, ill original pathology, turtle ill prevention and cure and health protection Cu long dose , the application of Chinese herbal medicine , turtle medicine classfication have discussed Taiwan and the relation of turtle disease and environment with role, turtle ill diagnosis and countermeasure turtle breed problem. Whole book content thorough shallow notice that theory and practice combine , can operatingness is strong. Suit every level, raise turtle special field grind with amateur to read. Purchase this book, is equal to to rest, turtle expert asks home, so as minimum put in to get true benifit. For relevant research courtyard the universities reference of teachers and students and the Scientists and Technologists of place as large raise turtle enterprise and raise the technical guidance of turtle specialist to use book.

¡ïA kind of specific drug of prevention and cure of the soft-shelled turtle white disease of base plate is developed , succeed. A kind of specific drug of prevention and cure of the soft-shelled turtle white disease of base plate from " the turtle ill expert of prevention and cure talks ", author studies with great concentration , and verifies by Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hainan and the Hubei relapse of and other places, effect is especially notable. After not only becoming sick , can control it promptly to stretch, 2 course of treatment can treat to recover, and prevention effect is also very obvious, Hangzhou 3 raise the 2 greenhouses in turtle site to raise the turtle this spring continuous use of last winter this medicine prevention, as a result, do not occur any disease, another 1 last years greenhouse raise turtle just begin only short time take orally this medicine, rear stop clothes, so far in year, earlyFebruary begins to occur the white ill, rear this site of base plate, decide to take this medicine continuously. Therefore prevent the white disease of base plate, must use this medicine continuously. The white disease of base plate is to begin in 1997 in nation-wide a lot of raise turtle area to appear, is in successive years unceasing , can arouse break out sexual death, conventional medicine can not be controled , and has relapse feature, death rate can cause whole army to collapse very high, had been raised , turtle circle name is cancer. Need this medicine, raise turtle site can with " the turtle ill expert of prevention and cure talks " author connect , the investment business who has intention can cooperate to build factory. Connection telephone: 0512-5208131 and 013951112930
Turtle white point is ill to be the prevention and cure with the disease of milkness ¡ª ¡ª the extracts " the turtle ill expert of prevention and cure talks " Zhang Jian For milkness and white a little two turtle diseases now, dispute is greater. Normally, the cause of disease of report milkness disease is woollen mould, the cause of disease of white a little disease is angry only afterbirth bacterium. Han Xian Piao ( 1997 ) think that milkness disease has two condition, milkness and white point. Two cause of diseases are different , but do not be that woollen mould arouses. Luo loyal far ( 1998 ) think , in vain a little disease includes the milkness disease that fungus kind ( woollen fungi ) arouse ( focus district 3 ¡« 5 millimeters ) , is in vain a little and ill as germ kind ( angry only afterbirth bacterium ) arouse ( in vain a little diameter 1 ¡« 3 millimeters ) and the in vain a little disease that microorganism arouses specially ( in vain a little diameter 0.5 ¡« 1 millimeters ). From the in vain a little disease that microorganism arouses specially , now do not have yet for disease medicine. According to observation, this disease will not directly endanger as turtle causes , but after droping , wound is easy to infect by germ. So under the prerequisite of correct diagnosis, the especially notice regulation of water quality does not use antibiotic, or necessity is taken orally few antibiotic. A, white point is ill Fall ill turtle is young young turtle mainly. Become sick peak in young turtle hatching 1 months as well as enter greenhouse 1 months , if not carry out effective treatment in time, death rate can rise in few days to 30%, sometimes the destruction of whole army. It can spread all over the whole body if white is counted , with belly department with a maximum of ( Cai picture 3-8 ). If counting sesame size in vain, besides the pearl form in skin suddenly, very like spore insect focus. Choose broken evidently white pus liquid. Serious, white point enlarges , has not even edge, phenomenon has to fester. 1. Cause of disease Is addict to water angry only afterbirth bacterium and mild angry single afterbirth bacterium. In which, mild angry only afterbirth bacterium goes through medicine quick experiment , is plain in colour for celebrating big mould , Fu Nan Zuo ketone and erythromycin etc. is high quick. 2. Treat ¢Ù whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle erythromycin 10 ¡Á 10-6 20 ¡Á 10-6; Chloromycetin powder 3 ¡Á 10-6; Head Bao antibiotic 0.5 ¡Á 10-6; Do good to all Nuo 0.5 ¡Á 10-6 ¡« 1 ¡Á 10-6. ¢Ú take orally to celebrate mould vegetarian meal, per the kilogram turtle world of one hundred and fifty thousands unit. Continuous 6 days is 1 course of treatments; Erythromycin or terramycin, per kilogram turtle use medicine 0.1 ¡« 0.2 gs. Reply new Nuo tomorrow, per kilogram turtle use medicine 0.1 ¡« 0.2 gs. ¢Û in forage in add the vitamin of high quantity. Per one-hundred thousands g turtle, use 7.5 chloromycetin gs ( or celebrate the mould plain in colour unit of twenty millions ) every day , vitamin K3300 milligram, vitamin C12 g and vitamin E5 g mix bait throw to feed, continuous 15 days. ¢Ü comprehensive treatment. When becoming sick , should change water first thoroughly, then the day of 1th use 500 ¡Á 10-6 sodium bicarbonate and 500 ¡Á 10-6 salt ( or the salt of 0.4% ) whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, the day of 3th use 2.5 ¡Á 10-6 2 oxidize chlorines ( or 2 ¡Á 10-6 4 ¡Á 10-6 gallnut ) whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, continuous 3 days. Besides treat must be at the same time taken orally medicine treat , in kilogram bait material, add 1 g vitamin Es, 1 g vitamin Cs and the g chloromycetin of 1.5 the day of 352.0 , even feed. 2, milkness is ill 1. Diagnosis and the cause of disease of milkness disease Cause of disease belongs to fungus kind of woollen fungi department ( Mucoraceae ) for woollen fungi ( Mucor sp £® ), so, again claim that woollen mould is ill. Diagnosis method: So long as puting ill turtle in water basin , make water flood and turtle body, evidently, turtle back has a piece milkness ( Cai picture 3-9, 3-10 ). Become sick initial stage, only in skirt side part, it is rear to develop gradually to back arms and legs , Geng department and belly department etc., milkness, epidermis spoils guadually to die, Beng untie , even bleed , infect after ammunition germ, concurrent stale skin is ill. When fungi parasitism goes to the throat department of turtle, since turtle respiration is difficult, guadually death, it is dull to be on the point of dead turtle, on edible Taiwan or pool slope, do not be willing to enter the water. Mirror Jian, evidently white bacterium silk body. 2. The method of prevention and cure Prevention milkness disease goes on from 4 aspects: ¢Ù thoroughly clear pool. Normally use 150 ¡Á 10-6 raw lime, or 100 ¡Á 10-6 good fortune Er horse forest. ¢Ú careful operation, do not make turtle body be injured. ¢Û cultivate fat water quality, make pool water show pale green colour, transparency control in 30 ¡« 40 centimetres, it is especially in new pool new water, fungi have quick Zhi the trend that breeds , therefore to regulate water quality. ¢Ü Shen use antibiotic. Since antibiotic has to promote this disease, the role of development. In practice, if examine this ill mistake , inject or use terramycin with penicillin to soak , accelerate its death as a result for germ turtle disease. If use two-hundreds thousands unit £¯ the medicine of kilogram turtle weight quantity penicillin for the Chinese turtle who contracts the disease of serious milkness inject after, about 30 minutes for can death, soak ill turtle one with terramycin for night for but death. Compare to use penicillin same dosage for healthy turtle inject , it is unusual to not discover. Treatment milkness disease can adopt 5 kinds of following method: ¢Ù the law of painting. Mold with g Zuo paint focus, link every day one times to use 3 ¡« five. After painting till wind, blow the dry offal or after suns trunk under sunlight. This law had better keep apart mainly used in serious ill turtle, in treating course, treat the next pool after recovers. ¢Ú soak the law of washing. 5 minutes soaks with the salt solution of 4% to wash turtle body or 4 ¡Á 10-6 inferior shell base orchid soak for a long time to wash. ¢Û sprinkle the law of sprinkling. Sprinkle with the water soda mixture whole pools of 0.05% and the salt of 0.05% to sprinkle; The 0.05 of carbolic acid ¡Á 10-6; Inferior shell base orchid 3 ¡Á 10-6; Good fortune Er horse forest 50 ¡Á 10-6 ¡« 100 ¡Á 10-6; The 4 of potassium permanganate ¡Á 10-6; 2 oxidize chlorine 2.5s ¡Á 10-6; Traditional Chinese medicine the 10 " milkness net" ¡Á 10-6 fry juice sprinkle to sprinkle. ¢Ü day sun therapy. As the first young turtle that becomes sick uses this law effect, better. Put turtle sunlight sun 30 ¡« 60 minutes, it is every day one, relapse some of. ¢Ý add vitamin E5 g / one-hundred thousands g turtle, mix bait to throw feed , continuous 15 days. 3. Cause of disease is analysed As factory melts to raise the swift development of turtle trade, buies everywhere to kiss turtle, young turtle and young turtle, these turtles has wild turtle , breeds turtle and market switch turtle ( the turtle of secondary market ) as well as overseas turtle, source is complex. Turtle draw kind, now, have not established quarantine system, the milkness and that turtle has taken that purchases is ill with other eqpidemic diseases. Draw kind course, since catching , transportation , put raise etc. link operation not Shen is injured , before pool, turtle body is sterilized and not tight , turtle put to raise density exceptional etc., cause the influence of pathogen for turtle easily , occur disease. Therefore us want strict can draw kind barrier, stop to lead into ill turtle. Good sterilized barrier very important. This is to implement the chief link in principle mainly with prevention. Before turtle takes off pool, it is strictly sterilized to go on , there will be specific aim on method, according to the popular season of turtle disease with become sick peak condition decision adopt what kind of medicine, for fungus turtle, it is sterilized that disease soak with dyestuff kind of medicine to wash, for germ and parasiticness turtle disease, will distinguish to treat. For pond , tool etc. disinfect , clear away incomplete bait, will often eat Taiwan from water in pull put under sunlight Pu sun to kill bacterium. For milkness ill and stale leather ill complication, it is outside to so exclude because of can not use antibiotic when treating to use dyestuff kind of medicine sterilized turtle body, according to germ stale leather disease, also, will notice to regulate water quality , prevent that water body transparency is exceptional , turtle tears mutually to bite body table damage, cause germ influence, medicine can choose the 10 of bleaching powder ¡Á 10-6 whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, or use 30 ¡Á 10-6 furazolidone soak to wash 30 ¡« 40 minutes, or 10 ¡Á 10-6 sulphanilamide kind of medicine soak to wash 48 hours, fear is taken orally with terramycin and tetracycline or penicillin and streptomycin , celebrate mould vegetarian meal inject.

Shell Quan the application in aquaculture Zhang jian ( Jiangsu province Suzhou city huqiu district agricultural department, 215,007 ) It is complex that the disease of aquatic animal occur reason to compare, sum up have: ( 1 ) the nutrition of forage not overall. In forage lack the growth of aquatic animal mineral matter etc. and the vitamin with necessary place, cause breed object malnutrition, disease-resistant ability weakens; ( 2 ) the major water quality that arouses because of incomplete bait and night soil worsen , offer to breed place for pathogen; ( 3 ) plenty of conditions deliver ill pathogen multiply and attack the organism of aquatic animal; ( 4 ) operation not careful, cause the damage of aquatic animal. So the disease of aquatic animal is because of forage , environment and cause of disease , send main interaction arouse , cut off in which any a chain link , is the one of channel of the effective disease of prevention and cure of aquatic animal. What this paper discuss is that use shell Quan ( Formalin ) for water quality disinfect , restrain and kill to extinguish pathogen , reduce the microorganism of cause of disease and the biomass of parasite, hinderance broken pathogen this important chain link, in order to reach the purpose of the control disease of aquatic animal. On June 18,1998 FDA ( American food and medicine management board ) have approved will shell Quan is used in owning have some funguses on fin fish egg as well as own have sheet and some body table protozoons of fin fish Zhi the control of fluke. 1 takes affect Shell Quan is the shell of 40% Quan aqueous solution, have vigorously stimulate smell , is protein coagulating agent , can restrain virus, germ, fungus, parasite and plankton, in the vaccine produce of aquatic product add the shell of 1% frequently Quan confrontation extinguish work. In tortoise turtle factory melts to breed, use shell Quan can play the part of peculiar effect for the disease of prevention and cure. According to experiment shell Quan the minimum lethal density for turtle is 200 ¡Á 10-6 density 400 ¡Á 10-6, bear in average ( TLM ) 24 hours of 1130 ¡Á 10-6, in 48 hours 580.3 ¡Á 10-6, in 96 hours 400 ¡Á 10-6, safely density 45.9 ¡Á 10-6, recommend to use: Dipping 50 ¡Á 10-6 ( the hour of 1 202 ), sprinkle to sprinkle ¡Á 10-6( poplar first happy etc., in 1995). Shell Quan dilute solution in low density can use in the case of aquatic animals, the body outside pathogen that is used to treat the most fish mainly counts disease, especially seawater fish sperm, skin mucus disease and the fluke for skin and branchia department , has quite good curative effect. Shell Quan the branchia organization that can consume the oxygen in water as well as hurts fish , can make epidermis protein and the mucus of fish solidify , therefore sprinkle to sprinkle density high, for the branchia of fish , body table have harm. Environment and the temperature in its medicine effect and use concerning, water warm up in 23 ¡« 26 ¡æ , for eel 48 hours of biggest safe density is 56 ¡Á 10-6, general actual use sprinkle to sprinkle 30 ¡Á 10-6 is harmless , but water warm up in 28 ¡æ more than , the plankton in pool water has to kill, extinguish role, it is bad to arouse water quality easily to change. In treatment course need to increase water fully dissolve oxygen the branchia department that measures as well as notices to observe ill fish whether occur unusual condition, in order to proper handling, once occuring any bad unusual reaction, must stop treating , and move ill fish arrive clean just water dissolve the water quality with rich oxygen environment in go. Shell Quan for seawater do not have vertebra biology can also cause strong poison. In factory melts to breed, shell Quan same can for filter the nitrification in system can produce bad influence, when stoping make to after, need to replenish immediately to add nitrify bacterium. Shell Quan in deposit possibility produce 3 assemble shell Quan become muddy or produce white sediment, assemble because of 3 shell Quan have very high toxicity, if discovery has few 3 to assemble, shell Quan form , before using , must filter it, or add to warm up to 65 ¡æ, after disappearing , white sediment uses again. 3 assemble shell Quan in low temperature as well as illumination can accelerate to form, thus solution must be placed in warm and dark place. 2 dosages 2 £® 1 clear pools Use quantity is 200 ¡Á 10-6, do pool clear pool or tape water clear pool ( 20 cm is shell deep ), because of shell Quan major composition is Quan, and shell Quan is a kind of material that volatilizes easily , therefore have no incomplete toxicity for pool base. Consideration revolves around to economize cost , select shell Quan is better than the 2 with higher price oxidize chlorine. 2 £® 2 soak to wash Normally with 100 ¡Á 10-6 soak to wash 3 hours, 250 ¡Á 10-6 soak to wash 1 hours, can treat the fish parasite disease that 3 arouses for insect and other protozoons; 30 ¡Á 10-6 solution soak to wash 24 hours can kill wheel insect, tongue a cup of insect, ring insect and little melon insect. Actual application adopts different density and time according to different object. If use 30 ¡Á 10-6 the shell of density Quan solution soak to wash the beard of 3 trouble acting insect diseases Nian only 30 minutes; Soak with the solution of 3% the minute of 2 water mould disease35% to wash lay eggs fish nest need only, can prevent; For the stimulate of yellow croaker Yin nuclear insect disease ( in vain a little disease ), 60 ¡Á 10-6 shell Quan soak the bath minute of 1520; The case of aquatic animals is used , high density scope in 150 ¡Á 10-6 dipping treatment 500 ¡Á 10-6, carry out , time control in the minute of 30 a course of treatment60 is , need to implement the of 23 everyday, until symptom disappears ,; Seawater breed sterilized medicine had better be shell Quan, but the body table of prevention and cure fester and various parasite disease, measure and disinfect time with medicine to part is: Shell Quan density 100 ¡Á 10-6 ¡« 300 ¡Á 10-6, disinfect time 5 ¡« 30 minutes; Used in the fish of mandarin fish breed in bait material fish disinfect , throw to feed former bait material fish option 60 ¡Á 10-6 time 100 ¡Á 10-6 shell Quan for bait material fish soak to wash disinfect , soak to wash with the minute of 1030 it is advisable. 2 £® 3 sprinkle to sprinkle Is used to treat fish little melon insect ill and tortoise turtle fungus venereal disease and the germ complication of venereal disease frequently. For fish sprinkle to sprinkle density 20 ¡Á 10-6 30 ¡Á 10-6, for tortoise turtle kind of 30 ¡Á 10-6 50 ¡Á 10-6. For the stimulate of yellow croaker Yin nuclear insect disease ( in vain a little disease ), earth pool is 20 ¡Á 10-6 30 ¡Á 10-6 whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle; The case of aquatic animals is used , general density in 15 ¡Á 10-6 day 25 ¡Á 10-6, can count continuously. When the condition of aquatic animal is serious or for some difficult illnesses can use shell properly Quan with alkalescence green mixture whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, necessity but with inferior shell base blue mixture sprinkle to sprinkle, if according to in vain a little complication and the milkness of turtle, using this kind of mixture, because of shell Quan with the inferior shell base blue mixture of matching after, shell Quan can adsorption dyestuff, toxicity strengthens , effect has also big side effect , therefore need to be correct to grasp time and the density of use, adopt at any time to change water measure. For fish, use reaction excessively, 150 ¡Á 10-6 density in 5 hours control , fish can arise death, the fish body colour of poisoning changes weak. 3 is applied Salmon department fish and tortoise turtle kind for shell Quan have higher endure by sex, shell Quan can efficiently the salmon department fish little melon insect ill and tortoise turtle clock shape insect disease of prevention and cure. But for the anchor head with common fish flea with other Rao enough kind of parasite invalid. 3 £® 1 shells Quan in beard Nian breed in application Beard Nian 3 acting insect diseases, pathogen belongs to flat shape animal door, sheet Zhi fluke key link. Symptom: The 3 insect body parasitisms of acting insect in fish body table or branchia petal on, ill fish body table glue liquid grow. Infect lightly, body table has the red little point of a lot of hyperemias; It is serious to infect , skin and muscle lose , expose fin bone or vertebra, ill fish external symptom have been considered accidentally frequently fight mutually to hit damage. The 3 influence rates of acting insect are very high , cause ill fish plenty of deathes frequently. Use 30 ¡Á 10-6 the shell of density Quan solution soak to wash ill fish 30 minutes, continuous 2 ¡« 3 d. 3.2 shells Quan in 3 writing fishes breed in application Son little melon insect is one of major parasite diseases of 3 writing fishes. Symptom is it, after parasitism on fish branchia produce glue liquid in large quantities, present naked eyes evidently little white point, some ill fishes grind body and expression worry sideways. The method of prevention and cure, use 250 ¡Á 10-6 shell Quan for ill fish soak bath 1 hours, per 2 days one, it is continuously three. 3 £® 3 shells Quan in eel breed in application Raise eel develop period , a lot of breed household like to use Fu Nan Zuo ketone ( furazolidone ) add shell Quan the treatment meshed branchia disease of eel, some even return it regard as "unique skill" use. Beginning use effect very good, but do not be all right slowly. Because of shell Quan the plankton in pool water have very strong kill to extinguish role, it is bad to arouse water quality to change, eel can appear to take edible decline , has affected the growth of eel. 3 £® 4 shells Quan in add state perch, snakehead and the fish of mandarin fish breed in application Is a lot of to breed household in snakehead , add state perch , the fish ponds such as the fish of mandarin fish in use shell Quan, cause fish suddenly eye and thin body , take edible bad, growth speed reduce slowly etc. phenomenon. Though shell Quan for kill to extinguish wheel insect and the insect effect of inclined tube definite good, but its side effect for sensitive fish is also fairly big, because it has corrosion role, can deliver fish branchia organization inflammation. 3 £® 5 shells Quan in tortoise turtle breed in application In tortoise turtle breeds , discovery tortoise turtle disease is compared , general disinfectant is hard to be controled. And use shell Quan for water body sterilized effect notable. Normally in new water pour into to breed pool before, use 30 ¡Á 10-6 virus, germ, fungus and parasite disease 50 ¡Á 10-6 shell Quan for the pool water body of temperature adjustment handle , can prevent efficiently, especially the prevention effect for the clock shape insect disease of common tortoise turtle can reach 100%. Used in treatment, if count for the concurrent turtle white of germ and fungus with milkness complication, with shell Quan with inferior shell base blue mixture, specific method is use 100 first ¡Á 10-6 shell Quan with 1 ¡Á 10-6 3 2 ¡Á 10-6 inferior shell base blue mixture whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, after 5 hours use ¡Á 10-6 everyday one chloromycetin 5 ¡Á 10-6 chloromycetin whole pool sprinkle to sprinkle, mixture uses only one times , and has , link to use three times, do not change water in duration, 1 course of treatments can be recovered. In treatment course if use the inferior shell base of high dosage blue, need to increase water fully dissolve oxygen quantity as well as notice observation ill turtle whether occur unusual condition, once discovery should surge to respond, it is uneasy that ill turtle shake the head on water surface, should rush immediately water or change water. Bibliographical reference [ 1 ] poplar study army. Leather beard Nian common ill prevention and cure. Beijing aquatic product, in 2001 3: 12 [ 2 ] Zhang sword: The turtle ill expert of prevention and cure talks. , Beijing: The document press of science and technology, 1999 [ 3 ] Zhang sword: Tortoise forage and the tortoise ill expert of prevention and cure are talked about. , Beijing: The document press of science and technology, 2001 ¡ª ¡ª publish in the magazine " fishery is modernized " 2,001.5 P. 1819

The cold treatment method of Cuora trifasciata Clinical symptom: Exterior appear to have no difference with normal tortoise, major expression ill tortoise respiration is hurried , serious per 5 minutes of face , boil four times, just like cough form, afterwards, head is been unable and hang low to breed vessel bottom, take meal to stop. Occur reason: Difference in temperature arouse , especially a storm attacks rear 2 d for the money tortoise who is suning the back around, begins to discover this disease , is actually to catch cold to cause the influence of the upper respiratory tract. Inject method: Intramuscular injection, after position limb base department. 1th DK20 IU/kg of ten thousands 3 d, use per d1 , continuous 3 d; D of 4th stops medicine; 5th DK20 IU/kg of ten thousands 7 d, use + VC2ml/kg, per d1 continuous 3 d; D of 8th stops medicine; 9th QD15 IU/kg of ten thousands 11 d use + ENSX2ml, per d1 continuous 3 d. Via 3 course of treatments, the treatment of 11 d, condition improves step by step, recover finally , and return to normal to take meal.

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